Vitamin A are fat soluble retinoids that are involved in the immune function, vision, reproduction and cellular communication. They support cell growth and differentiation, playing a critical role in the normal formation and maintenance of the heart, lungs, kidneys, and other organs. They can either be absorbed as preformed Vitamin A in the form of retinol or provitamin A like carotenoids. While vitamin A can directly be used by the body, the provitamin B is converted intracellularly before use as needed. However, while preformed vitamin A overdose can have serious health consequences and must be monitored to account for intake in food, oral nutritional supplements and those administered via skin, provitamin A has almost no risk of overdose.

Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) is required for the biosynthesis of collagen, L-carnitine, and certain neurotransmitters, protein metabolism. Collagen is an essential component of connective tissues and thus helps in wound healing. Vitamin C is also a powerful antioxidant and used by the body to regenerate vitamin E. The powerful antioxidant property helps in quenching free radicals (oxidative stress) thereby having beneficial help effects in delaying disease like certain cancer and cardiovascular disease.

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin promotes calcium absorption in the gut and maintains adequate serum calcium and phosphate concentrations to enable normal mineralization of bone and to prevent hypocalcemic tetany. It is also needed for bone growth and bone remodeling by osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Together with calcium, vitamin D also helps protect older adults from osteoporosis.

Vitamin E is a fat-soluble, essential nutrient with anti-inflammatory properties. Vitamin E helps support the immune system, cell function, and skin health. It’s an antioxidant, making it effective at combating the effects of free radicals produced by the metabolism of food and toxins in the environment. Vitamin E may be beneficial at reducing UV damage to skin.

Omega 3, 6 and 9 fatty acids
The role of omega fatty acids are diverse and include maintenance of the stratum corneum permeability barrier, maturation and differentiation of the stratum corneum, formation and secretion of lamellar bodies, inhibition of proinflammatory eicosanoids, elevation of the sunburn threshold, inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, and interleukin-12), inhibition of lipoxygenase, promotion of wound healing, and promotion of apoptosis in malignant cells, including melanoma.